Parents: Boston Public Schools Grade 2

Grade 2 Learning Standards

This information is from the Boston Public Schools Citywide Learning Standards.


Oral Presentation and Discussion
Students will be able to:

  • Follow agreed upon rules for class discussion (raising one's hand, waiting one's turn, and speaking one at a time).
  • Contribute knowledge to class discussion in order to develop a topic for a class project.
  • Give oral presentations about experiences or interests, using eye contact and clear enunciation.
  • Maintain focus on the topic.
  • Express an opinion of a literary work or film in an organized way.
  • Retell a story with a beginning, middle, and end, including important details.
  • Use listening skills to obtain information.
  • Retell or dramatize traditional literature.
  • Identify and sort common words into categories (opposites, living things).
  • Identify base words (look) and their inflectional forms (looks, looked, looking).
  • Identify simple words with multiple meanings (saw/saw) using their context.
  • Identify common antonyms and synonyms.
  • Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of unknown compound words (lunchtime, daydream, raindrop).
  • Determine meanings of words by using a beginning dictionary.
  • Recognize that the names of things can also be the names of actions (fish, dream, run).
  • Understand and use the fundamental skills in sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and spelling as defined in the BPS Course Guides.
Reading and Literature
  • Read grade-appropriate narrative and expository text with comprehension, fluency, and accuracy using appropriate timing and change in voice and expression.
  • Use comprehension strategies such as prior knowledge, predicting, visualizing, questioning, and summarizing to understand text.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the various features of written English.
  • Use correct spelling of high-frequency words, whether irregularly or regularly spelled.
  • Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence and a paragraph.
  • Identify the author and title of a book, and use a table of contents.
  • Demonstrate orally that phonemes exist.
  • Generate the sounds from long- and short-vowel patterns, onsets, and rimes, and combine these sounds into recognizable words.
  • Use knowledge of vowel digraphs, vowel diphthongs, and r-controlled letter-sound associations (as in star) to read words.
  • Use letter-sound knowledge to decode written English.
  • Read many irregularly spelled words, special vowel spellings, and common word endings.
  • Apply knowledge of letter patterns to identify syllables.
  • Apply the sounds represented by consonant digraphs, vowel digraphs and diphthongs.
  • Use more difficult word families (-ought) and known words to decode unknown words.
  • Read words with several syllables.
  • Retell a story's beginning, middle, and end when reading literary texts.
  • Distinguish cause from effect when reading literary texts.
  • Restate main ideas when reading informational texts.
  • Use knowledge of common text features, graphic features, and organizational structures to make predictions and gain meaning from a variety of informational materials.
  • Confirm and discount predictions when reading literary and expository texts and explain why.
  • Identify similarities among the works of an author or illustrator.
  • Identify different interpretations of the same work by different illustrators.
  • Relate themes in works of fiction (folk tales, fables, and Greek myths for children) and nonfiction to personal experience.
  • Identify words appealing to the five senses in literature and spoken language.
  • Identify the different forms of literature such as poetry, prose, fiction, nonfiction, and drama in reading and apply this knowledge as a strategy for comprehending text.
  • Identify and analyze plot, character, and setting in the stories they read and write.
  • Identify and use knowledge of common text features, graphic features and organizational structures to gain meaning from a variety of informational materials.
  • Locate facts that distinguish cause from effect, distinguish fact from opinion, and summarize main ideas and supporting details when reading informational texts.
  • Identify rhyme and rhythm, repetition, similes, and visual and auditory images in poems that are read aloud, and use these techniques in their writing. Plan and perform readings of selected text for an audience.
Writing and Composition
  • Write stories that have a beginning, middle, and end.
  • Write short stories and poems.
  • Write letters, directions, or short accounts of personal experiences that follow a logical order.
  • Write research questions.
  • Write a response to a key question from literature.
  • Use a variety of genres when writing for different audiences.
  • After writing or dictating a composition, identify words and phrases that could be added to make the thought clearer, more logical, or more expressive.
  • Apply rules for capitalization for names and places and capitalization and commas in dates.
  • Use correct spelling of sight and/or spelling words.
  • Use appropriate end marks such as periods and question marks.
  • Arrange events in order when writing or dictating.
  • Arrange ideas in a way that makes sense.
  • Understand and use writers' craft in their writing.
  • Use knowledge of word study to monitor and check spelling.
  • Print upper-and lower-case letters legibly and use them to make words.
  • Identify techniques used in television (actors, animation, close-ups, wide-angle shots, sound effects, music, and expressive graphics) and use their knowledge to distinguish between facts and misleading information.
  • Create video and presentations.

The Early Americas: Life Before and After the Coming of the Europeans
Topic 1: My Need to Follow Rules, Accept Responsibility, and Make Decisions

  • Recognize that individuals within a community of people must follow rules, accept responsibilities, share ideas, cooperate, negotiate to problem solve, and make decisions.
  • Observe and practice rules and precepts of the learning community.
  • Recognize in story and narrative the ideas of liberty and justice.
  • Learn to work in groups with defined tasks and responsibilities.
  • Recognize and explain individual conduct that makes life better for everyone.
  • Learn about individuals whose contributions should be admired.
Topic 2: My Country
  • Recognize the United States as their "home."
  • Understand the meaning of American symbols of freedom and unity, telling why each is important.
Topic 3: Daily Life in a Native American Community
  • Recognize how Native Americans lived long ago (including the setting in which they lived; food; shelter; roles of men, women, and children; transportation; communications; and recreation).
  • Explore (through books, videos, pictures, songs, CDs, and kits) communities/countries unlike those with which they are familiar.
  • Recognize similarities and differences between today's Native American communities and those from the past.
  • Review the basic characteristics of a community, including physical characteristics (landforms, climate, temperature or weather, bodies of water) and human characteristics (jobs, language spoken, homes, recreation) and apply these basics to the study of Native Americans.
  • Describe how humans interact with the environment.
  • Explain how communities change over time.
  • Locate principle features of New England's physical geography.
  • Locate their own community in relation to important geographical features of Massachusetts, such as Cape Cod.
  • Learn how physical environments have influenced particular cultures and economies.
Topic 4: Traveling to and Settling New Lands
  • Explain why individuals explore and describe the way in which explorers travel (past and present).
  • Describe the concept of settlement and the concept of change, giving examples of both in real life and in stories.
  • Recognize that there are many reasons why things happen and bring about change (understand cause and effect).
  • Learn about the intended and unintended consequences of individual actions through real life examples and through stories.
Topic 5: How Life Changed for Natives and Europeans
  • Identify who the Pilgrims were, where they came from, the reasons they left England, how the Pilgrims traveled to the New World, and the dangers involved in the voyage.
  • Explain why the Pilgrims decided to settle in Plimoth (Plymouth) and the difficulties they faced in their new environment.
  • Recognize the Mayflower Compact as an important document and explain, in simple terms, why it is important.
  • Describe the daily life of a Pilgrim boy or girl and compare it to the daily life of a Native American (Wampanoag).
  • Describe what happened when the Pilgrims and Native Americans met and how life changed for both the Pilgrims and the Wampanoags
Other Standards/Skills To Be Developed Within the Context of a Lesson
  • Begin to construct historical timelines.
  • Enlarge globe and map-reading skills (follow narrative accounts on globe and maps).
  • Enhance their globe and map-reading skills by making simple maps on paper that distinguish physical characteristics of a community.
  • Identify and discuss causal factors.
  • Refine their sense of time ("now" and "in the past") and recognize in discussion the existence of changing historical periods ("in other times and places").
  • Note and identify individual and community needs, as distinguished from wants.
Connections to Literacy
  • Explore Native American and other historical figures in stories, biographies, and historical narratives and recall details.
  • Recognize similarities and differences of character, action, and setting: between now and the period depicted, between periods depicted.
  • Identify/seek evidence, with teacher assistance, for inferences.
  • Retell an event with a beginning, middle, and end, including important details.
  • Express an opinion in an organized way, with supporting details.
  • Use listening skills to obtain information.
  • Make comparative oral connections, with teacher assistance, between stories and/or between stories and life experiences.
  • Incorporate the above capacities in simple writing exercises.
  • Memorize historical poetry, songs, portions of documents, and speeches.
  • Use agreed upon rules to participate in large and small group discussions.
  • Write frequently in response to readings and presentations.
  • Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their thoughts and writings.

Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability

  • Formulate questions, use interviews, surveys, and observations to gather data about themselves and their surroundings.
  • Gather, collect, categorize, and record data.
  • Have a plan for keeping track of data.
  • Explain and interpret results of surveys.
  • Collect numerical data.
  • See representations as a way of communicating to others.
  • Describe and interpret representations of data.
  • Can plan a data analysis project.
  • Organize, classify, represent, and interpret data using tallies, charts, tables, bar graphs, and pictographs; and interpret representations.
  • Make sense of other students' representations of data.
  • Represent data in several ways.
  • Explore different ways of organizing numerical data.
  • Focus on important features of data, such as range and outlier.
  • Compare data sets.
  • Uses data representations to communicate information.
  • Formulate inferences (draw conclusions) and make educated guesses (conjectures) about a situation based on information gained from data.
  • Interpret data and make hypotheses based on data.
  • Describe attributes and compare 2-D and 3-D shapes.
  • Sort, describe, and identify 2-D and 3-D shapes.
  • Compose and decompose 2-D and 3-D shapes.
  • Identify shapes based on number of sides and corners.
  • Recognize congruent shapes.
  • Recognize shapes that have been rotated and reflected and describe those translations.
  • Identify symmetry in 2-D shapes.
  • Find and describe objects that mirror symmetry.
  • Make 2-D symmetrical designs.
  • Build 3-D symmetrical designs.
  • Relate geometric ideas to number.
  • Visualize, construct, and draw rectangular arrays.
  • Construct arrays to represent numbers and identify halves of the arrays.
  • Describe fractional parts of an array both numerically and visually.
  • Construct 2-D array divided into thirds or fourths.
  • Identify parts of the day, days of the week, months of the year; identify dates using a calendar.
  • Work with calendar to become familiar with sequence of days, weeks, and months and the relationships among these periods of time.
  • Work with daily schedules to become familiar with order of familiar events over time.
  • Discuss posted daily schedule including both analog and digital representations.
  • Identify and record a start time and a finish time; include analog and digital representations.
  • Compare the length and area of two or more objects by using direct comparison.
  • Use a nonstandard unit to measure length.
  • Measure and compare common objects.
  • Understand the process of measuring.
  • Compare the effect on measurement of using units of different size.
  • Use direct and indirect comparison to compare length.
  • Select and correctly use the appropriate measurement tools.
  • Use a measuring device with understanding of the measurement process.
  • Understand that units must be used in a consistent way.
  • Make and use estimates of measurement including time, length, and area.
  • Develop a sense of a minute as a unit of time.
  • Determine path length by iterating and then counting units.
Number Sense and Operations
  • Read, write, and sequence numbers up to 100.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the structure and patterns of our number system from 1 to 100.
  • Use landmark numbers such as 10, 25, and 100.
  • Identify and distinguish among multiple uses of number.
  • Identify uses of numbers in the world.
  • Identify and represent common fractions.
  • Construct arrays to represent numbers and identify halves of the arrays.
  • Describe fractional parts of an array both numerically and visually.
  • Construct an array and divide into thirds or fourths.
  • Compare whole numbers.
  • Use the 100 chart as a tool for combining and comparing numbers.
  • Compare numbers to 100.
  • Identify coin names, values, and equivalencies.
  • Combine different coins to make 25 and 50.
  • Recognize coins: penny, nickel, dime, and quarter.
  • Know coin equivalencies for nickel, dime, and quarter.
  • Use money as a model for counting by 5's and 10's.
  • Use coins as a model for adding and subtracting multiples of 5 and 10.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of various meanings of addition and subtraction.
  • Write several equations for a given number.
  • Understand the concept of addition.
  • Understand the concept of subtraction as "take away," comparison, and unknown change.
  • Match addition and subtraction notations to situations they could represent.
  • Identify and use standard notation for addition and subtraction.
  • Can choose from a variety of strategies based on the numbers given in a problem.
  • Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction.
  • Use knowledge of addition and subtraction pairs.
  • Know addition combinations to 10 and use them to solve problems.
  • Know combinations of 10.
  • Know doubles combinations and doubles +1 combinations.
  • Demonstrate the ability to add and subtract two-digit numbers accurately and efficiently.
  • Accurately add double-digit plus single digit number.
  • Accurately subtract a single-digit number from a double-digit number.
  • Accurately add two-digit numbers.
  • Accurately subtract two-digit numbers.
Discussion, Presentation and Composition
  • Use agreed upon rules to participate in large and small group discussions.
  • Express ideas in an organized way.
  • Explain their mathematical thinking in writing.
  • Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their work.

Topic: Insects/Life Cycles

  • Recognize that animals (including humans) and plants are living things that grow, reproduce, and need food, air, and water.
  • Differentiate between living and nonliving things. Group both living and nonliving things according to the characteristics that they share.
  • Recognize that plants and animals have life cycles, and that life cycles vary for different living things.
  • Describe ways in which many plants and animals closely resemble their parents in observed appearance.
  • Recognize that people and other animals interact with the environment through their senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.
  • Recognize changes in appearance that animals and plants go through as the seasons change.
Topic: Comparing and Measuring
  • Sort objects by observable properties such as size, shape, color, weight, and texture.
Topic: The Earth's Surface
  • Recognize that water, rocks, soil, and living organisms are found on the earth's surface.
Topic: Engineering /Technology
  • Understand that materials both natural and human-made have specific characteristics that determine how they will be used.
  • Identify tools and simple machines used for specific purposes.
  • Describe how humans use parts of the body as tools and compare their use with ways in which animals use those parts of their bodies.
Topic: Scientific Inquiry
  • Use simple tools such as rulers, magnifiers, balances, etc. to observe things more carefully.
Topic: Experimentation
  • Conduct simple science experiments and observe the outcome. Inquiry may be teacher directed.
  • Observe and describe simple experiments using pictures, words, diagrams, and graphs.
  • Tell others what they see, think, and wonder about.
  • Use agreed upon rules to participate in large and small group discussions.
  • Give informal oral presentations.
  • Express an idea in an organized way, with some details.
  • Retell an observation with a beginning, middle, and end, including some details.
  • Use listening skills to obtain information.
  • Write frequently in response to readings, observations, and presentations.
  • Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their thoughts, observations, writings, illustrations, and other work.