


Parents: Boston Public Schools Grade 6
Grade 6 Learning Standards
This information is from the Boston Public Schools Citywide Learning Standards.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
Discussion and Oral Presentation
Students will be able to:
 Use agreed upon rules for informal and formal discussions in large and small groups such as Book Club, Literature Circles, and Buddy Reading.
 Facilitate discussion groups independent from the teacher; identify and practice techniques to improve group productivity such as discussion guidelines, setting time limits for speakers and deadlines for decisionmaking.
 Organize and present ideas in a logical order.
 Ask for clarification when others' responses are unclear.
 Actively listen, respond to, and build on ideas generated during group discussions.
 Use information to inform or change their perspectives.
 Support their responses with evidence or details; expect and request the same of others.
 Summarize and evaluate what they have learned from the discussion.
 Evaluate the productivity of group discussion using group created criteria and make suggestions to address the needs of the group.
 Give oral presentations for a variety of purposes, using teachermade criteria that demonstrate consideration of audience, purpose and content.
 Use assessment criteria to prepare their presentations.
 Listen critically and express opinions in oral presentations.
 Distinguish between fact and opinion.
 Compare and contrast points of view.
 Gather relevant information for a research project or composition through interviews.
 Conduct interviews for research projects and writing.

Language
 Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words using knowledge word parts and context clues.
 Recognize that a word performs different functions according to the position in the sentence.
 Understand how the features of word dictionaries and thesauruses help them determine pronunciations, meanings, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.
 Identify the eight basic parts of speech.
 Expand or reduce sentences during oral and written responses.
 Demonstrate appropriate use of formal and informal language.
 Identify differences between oral and written language patterns.
 Recognize common irregularly spelled words by sight.
 Use lettersound knowledge to decode written English.
 Read gradeappropriate imaginative/literary and informational/expository text fluently, accurately, and understanding.
 Understand how language is used for different purposes: creative expression, description, explaining, and persuading.
 Identify and analyze sensory details and figurative language.
 Identify and analyze the author's use of dialogue and description.
 Recognize organizational structures of informational/expository texts.

Reading and Literature
 Demonstrate fluency and understanding when reading different gradelevel appropriate text.
 Select books for independent reading.
 Use before, during, and after reading strategies to enhance their comprehension of texts.
 Use background knowledge to make inferences and predictions and to make personal connections with what is being read.
 Set a purpose for reading.
 Ask questions to clarify information.
 Summarize information to check understanding.
 Visualize information in text to support comprehension.
 Identify the topic and main idea of different texts.
 Understand genres and organizational structure and apply that knowledge to their reading of different texts.
 Use knowledge of text features and organizational structure to make meaning of what is being read.
 Demonstrate an understanding of the intratextuality of the text they are reading.
 Develop personal or critical theory about what they are reading.
 Be selfmonitoring/metacognitive: understand when comprehension breaks down; know and using selfcorrecting strategies to make meaning of what is being read.
 Relate a literary work to information about its setting.
 Apply knowledge of the concept that theme refers to the main idea and meaning of a selection, whether it is implied or stated.
 Identify and analyze the elements of setting, characterization, and plot (including conflict).
 Identify and use knowledge of common textual features, graphic features, and organizational structures.
 Identify and analyze main ideas, supporting ideas, and supporting details in informational and expository texts.
 Respond to and analyze the effects of sound, figurative language, and graphics in order to uncover meaning in poetry.
 Identify imagery, figurative language, rhythm, or flow when responding to literature.
 Identify and analyze the importance of shades of meaning in determining word choice in a piece of literature.
 Compare traditional literature from different cultures.
 Identify common structures and stylistic elements in folktales, fairytales, legends, and myths.
 Use knowledge of character development to create an original character for an oral presentation or performance.

Composition
 Collect ideas for writing from different texts and sources (dialogue, artifacts, memories, images, etc.).
 Maintain a process for recording, collecting, referring to, and sharing their ideas for writing, as well as more formal writing products, including drafts.
 Write for different purposes and for different audiences.
 Understand different genres and organizational structures.
 Select appropriate genres and organizational structures for drafts.
 Select appropriate strategies for developing ideas into drafts.
 Select appropriate strategies for revising the organization and ideas in drafts.
 Understand and use effective language for talking about pieces of writing (e.g. , craft, focus, structure, genre, voice, audience).
 Use their knowledge of standard English conventions (mechanics, grammar, and spelling) to edit work.
 Make distinctions among fiction, nonfiction, dramatic literature, and poetry, and use these genres selectively when writing for different purposes.
 Identify verb phrases and verb tenses.
 Identify simple and compound sentences.
 Identify correct mechanics and correct sentence structure.
 Use additional knowledge of correct mechanics (apostrophes, quotation marks, comma use in compound sentences, paragraph indentations), correct sentence structure (elimination of fragments and runons), and correct standard English spelling (commonly used homophones) when writing, revising, and editing.
 Create short stories.
 Decide on the placement of descriptive details about setting, characters, and events in stories.
 Group related ideas and place them in logical order when writing summaries or reports.
 Organize information about a topic into a coherent paragraph with a topic sentence, sufficient supporting detail, and a concluding sentence.
 Reflect on and selfmonitor their development as a writer.
 Write stories or scripts containing the basic elements of fiction and using a mix of formal and informal language.
 Write poems using poetic techniques, figurative language, and graphic elements.
 Write brief research reports with clear focus and supporting detail.
 Write short explanation of a process that includes a topic statement, supporting details, and a conclusion.
 Write formal letters to correspondents such as authors, newspapers, businesses, or government officials.
 Apply steps for obtaining information from a variety of sources, organizing information, documenting, and presenting research in individual and group projects.
 Use an expanded range of print and nonprint sources.
 Follow established criteria for evaluating information.
 Locate specific information within resources by using indexes, tables of contents, electronic search key words.
 Organize and present research using the learning standards in the Composition Strand as a guide for writing.
 Provide appropriate documentation in a consistent format.
 Use prescribed criteria from a scoring rubric to evaluate compositions, recitations, or performances before presenting them to an audience.

Media
 Identify and distinguish between the techniques used in educational reference software and web sites and those used by authors and illustrators of print materials.

HISTORY & SOCIAL STUDIES
Ancient Civilizations of the Old World, Prehistory to 700 C.E. Teaching for Understanding
 Significant time needs to be spent during the year developing students' understanding of key concepts or "big ideas" that are important to all eras and regions of the world. Examples of these big ideas are listed below.
 At the beginning of the year, teachers should engage students in activities to find out what they already know about some or all of the big ideas. At the close of each topic, teachers should return to the big ideas and ask, "What's something new you have learned about the big ideas? What people, places, events, documents, artifacts, and other details have contributed to your new understandings? How are your new understandings different or similar to your previous opinions and beliefs?"
 Teachers may also pose more specific key questions that stimulate additional thought, discussion and writing by students. Over the course of the year, students' opinions and beliefs will be sharpened into generalizations and principles supported by the evidence they have collected along the way.

Key Concepts/Big Ideas: Examples
 Economic, Political, Social Justice
 Economic, Political, Social Systems
 Power
 Freedom
 Race/Gender/Ethnicity/Class
 Discrimination
 "Unalienable Rights"
 War/Peace/Violence
 Religion
 Art, Music, & Culture
 Childhood, Adolescence, and Family Life
 Money, Wealth, Poverty

 Work: Labor & Management
 Business & Economics
 Leaders & Leadership
 Government & Politics
 "My country, right or wrong"
 Geography/Natural Resources/Nature
 "E pluribus unum"
 "Of the people, by the people, for the people"
 Individual, Civic, and Social Responsibility
 Imperialism/Colonialism

General Standards
 Construct and interpret historical timelines; associate period with chronological order.
 Put events into temporal order.
 Observe and identify details in cartoons, photographs, charts, and graphs.
 Use maps and globes to locate places and events: demonstrate an understanding of longitude and latitude; North and South Pole, Equator, Prime Meridian, Hemispheres; compass rose, scale, legend; political, topographical, specialized, modern and historical maps and their differences.
 Demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect, and the relations between events.
 Demonstrate an understanding that actions can have intended and unintended consequences.
 Be familiar with the key people, places, events, documents, movements, and other details identified under each topic.
 Make connections between key people and events, people and events from their own lives, the lives of family members, and people and events in the world around them.
 Compare and contrast ideas, rituals, customs, and concerns expressed or conducted by individuals of the past that may be similar or different from their own.
 Increase and demonstrate their understanding of the big ideas associated with each topic, using key people, places, events, document, et al. to illustrate and support their own ideas.
 Conduct historical inquiry projects: employ a variety of sources to gather information and evidence, and reach conclusions; identify primary and secondary sources; differentiate among the kinds of texts they read; understand that narrative accounts vary in emphasis and accuracy depending upon to the author's point of view and understanding of cause or significance.

Discussion and Presentation
 Use agreed upon rules to participate in and facilitate large and small group discussions.
 Organize and present their thoughts in a logical manner.
 Support their ideas with evidence or details; expect and request the same of others.
 Actively listen, respond to, and build on ideas generated during discussions.
 Use the information to inform or change their perspectives.
 Ask for clarification when others' responses are unclear.
 Summarize and evaluate what they have learned from the discussion.
 Evaluate the productivity of discussions using established criteria; make suggestions to improve the discussions.
 Give oral presentations, using established criteria to prepare, assess, and improve their presentations.

Composition
 Write frequently in response to readings, lectures, and other presentations (e.g., summaries, questions, reactions, interpretations, connections, perspectives, predictions, and other responses to people and events).
 Maintain a system (e.g., history notebooks) for collecting, referring to, and sharing their notes, thoughts, and writings, including formal writing products.
 Write occasional, brief research reports to extend their knowledge beyond classroom presentations; include a clear focus and supporting details.
 Write, share, assess, and revise frequent responses to MCASlike, open response (key) questions posed by the teacher.

Era I: Human Beginnings & Early Civilizations (Prehistory to 1000 B.C.E.)
Topic 1: Human Origins, Early Life, the Work and Findings of Archaeologists Students will be familiar with:
 The methods employed by archaeologists, geologists, and other scientists to study the evolution of early man.
 The role that the environment plays in the development of different human communities.
 Similar and different social and cultural characteristics, including technological ability, of huntergatherer communities in various continental regions.
 How early human communities differed in their expression of religious beliefs.

Topic 2: Earth's Geography: Climate, Soil, Waters, Topography, and Human Migration
 The physical characteristics of Earth and the influence of geography on human development, including migration.

Topic 3: The Agricultural Revolution; Neolithic Technology and Its Effects on Human Life
 The factors which constitute a culture.
 How agriculture aided in the development of permanent communities.

Topic 4: Early Civilizations In Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, India
 How geography influenced the development of early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and the Indus Valley.
 Each civilization in terms of economic, social, cultural, and political developments.
 How science and technology aided in the development of each civilization.

Era II: Classical Civilizations of the Ancient World (1000 B.C.E.500 C.E.)
Topic 5: Origins, Central Teachings, and Spread of Judaism
 The emergence of Judaism, how it compares to other religions, and its contributions to civilization; monotheism and values contained within the Ten Commandments.
 The similarities and differences among the major ideas of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.

Topic 6: Greek Civilization: Literature, Philosophy, Arts, and Science
 The physical characteristics of ancient Greece and the role geography played in the economic development of the civilization.
 The major cultural achievements of Greek civilization and the lasting impact of Greek culture and learning on Western and World History.
 The significance of the Age of Pericles in terms of literature, art and philosophical development; the achievements of three of four individuals: Homer, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.
 The growth of art and architecture during the Golden Age (optional).

Topic 7: Athenian Democracy; Principles, Practices, and Legacy
 How democracy was established in Athens, how it was defined and how it compares to democracy in the United States.
 Life in Athens compared to life in Sparta including the role of women in society.
 The significance of the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars.
 Causes of the decline of the Athenian Empire.

Topic 8: Alexander The Great and The Spread Of Hellenism
 The achievements of Alexander the Great.

Topic 9: Institutions, Culture, and Legacies of the Roman Republic and Empire
 The myth of the founding of Rome.
 The major physical characteristics of Italy.
 The influence of geography on the development of Rome.
 The term "republic" and the role each of the following: Consuls, Assemblies and the Senate.
 Roman expansion into other areas of the Mediterranean including the ability of the Romans to rule diverse groups of people.
 The fall of the Republic, the rise of Julius Caesar, and the growth of imperial Rome.

Topic 10: The Classical Civilization of India: Hinduism, Buddhism
 The life and teaching of the Buddha; the eightfold path.
 The achievements of the emperor Ashoka; the expansion of Buddhism in India (optional).
 The major beliefs of Hinduism and Buddhism.
 How religious beliefs influenced art, architecture, and literature in India.
 The similarities and differences among the major ideas of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.

Topic 11: The Classical Civilization of China: Confucianism, Taoism
 The role of geography in the development of civilization in China.
 The achievements of the Han Dynasty.
 The contributions made to civilization by Confucius and Laotse.
 The fall of the Han Dynasty: causes and impact.

Topic 12: Origins, Central Teachings, and the Spread of Christianity
 The values expressed in Christianity.
 Religious persecution; why Christians were feared by ordinary citizens and governmental leaders.
 Jesus, St. Peter and Paul and their role in spreading Christianity.
 The similarities and differences among the major ideas of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.

Topic 13: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: Historians' Debate
 Economic, social, and political factors that brought about the fall of the Roman Empire and the controversy that surrounds each cause.

Era III: Growth of Agriculture & Commercial Civilizations (5001500 C.E.)
Topic 14: The Byzantine Empire: Institutions, Religion, and Culture
 How the Byzantine Empire preserved Western knowledge.

Topic 15: The Origins and Principles of Islam; Spread of Muslim Power
 The central teachings of Islam and the significance of Muhammad, Mecca , and Medina.
 The values and central ideas expressed in Islam.
 The similarities and differences among the major ideas of Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism.

Topic 16: Components of Early European Civilization: Roman, Christian, Invaders (optional)
 Instabilities in political and social institutions in Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

MATH
Number Sense and Operations
 Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
 Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.
 Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
 Demonstrate an understanding of positive integer exponents, in particular, when used in powers of ten, e.g., 102, 105.
 Find and use common multiples, factors, prime and composite numbers.
 Use divisibility tests (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11) and their multiples.
 Master the use of primes and properties of numbers, such as GCF and LCM to compute and/or approximate powers and roots.
 Demonstrate an understanding of place value to billions and thousandths.
 Identify and use place value in standard and expanded form.
 Represent and compare very large (billions) and very small (thousandths) positive numbers in various forms such as expanded notation without exponents, e.g., 9724 = 9 x 1000+ 7 x 2 x 10 + 4.
 Demonstrate an understanding of fractions as a ratio of whole numbers, as parts of unit wholes, as parts of a collection and as locations on the number line.
 Identify and determine common equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents.
 Find and position integers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals (both positive and negative) on the number line.
 Read, write, and understand conceptually integers (positive and negative), fractions, and decimals.
 Compare and order integers (including negative integers), and positive fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents.
 Apply number theory conceptsincluding prime and composite numbers, prime factorization, greatest common factor, least common multiple, and divisibility rules for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 10to the solution of problems.
 Select and use appropriate operations to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and positive integer exponents with whole numbers, and with positive fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents.
 Use the number line to model addition and subtraction of integers, with the exception of subtracting negative integers.
 Use a variety of approaches for computing and solving problems.
 Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse relationship of addition and subtraction, and use that understanding to simplify computation and solve problems.
 Use concrete and abstract models to understand and describe the mathematical processes underlying the operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (and their relationship with one another) on fractions, decimals and integers
 Accurately and efficiently add, subtract, multiply, and divide (with doubledigit divisors) whole numbers and positive decimals.
 Compute with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and integers.
 Use effective models and processes of computation with understanding (mental, oral, written, calculator, computer, etc.).
 Accurately and efficiently add, subtract, multiply, and divide positive fractions and mixed numbers. Simplify fractions.
 Compute with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and integers.
 Add and subtract integers, with the exception of subtracting negative integers.
 Use operations involving fractions, decimals, and integers.
 Estimate results of computations with whole numbers, and with positive fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, and percents. Describe reasonableness of estimates.
 Round to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, million, billion.
 Round decimals and fractions to the nearest preassigned value.
 Use estimation to solve problems involving, money, length, area, perimeter and volume.
 Create and solve meaningful problems that require the use of numbers other than whole numbers.
 Know and use order of operations including the use of parentheses.

Patterns, Relations, and Algebra
 Understand patterns, relations and functions.
 Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
 Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
 Analyze change in various contexts.
 Analyze and determine the rules for extending symbolic, arithmetic, and geometric patterns and progressions, e.g., ABBCCC…; 1, 5, 9, 13, …; 3, 9, 27,….
 Describe and represent patterns using models, tables, graphs, and rules.
 Locate ordered pairs to graph 2D figures/data.
 Use patterns involving integers and positive rational numbers to solve problems.
 Represent number patterns with verbal and written rules and standard algebraic notations: describe the four properties and relationships.
 Replace variables with given values and evaluate/simplify, e.g., 2 (?) + 3 when ? = 4.
 Use expressions with variables (i.e., letters, shapes) to understand and describe algebraic relationships, mappings, formulas, expressions, equations and inequalities.
 Use algebraic procedures and strategies to solve realworld and mathematical problems using equations and inequalities.
 Use the properties of equality to solve problems, e.g., if ? + 7 = 13, then ? = 13  7, therefore ? = 6; if 3 x ? = 15, then ? x 3 x ? = ? x 15, therefore ? = 5.
 Use multiple strategies and tools to solve equations.
 Represent real situations and mathematical relationships with concrete models, tables, graphs, and rules in words and with symbols, e.g., inputoutput tables.
 Solve linear equations using concrete models, tables, graphs, and paperpencil methods.
 Produce and interpret graphs that represent the relationship between two variables in everyday situations.
 Identify and describe relationships between two variables with a constant rate of change. Contrast these with relationships where the rate of change is not constant.
 Describe, represent, and compare rates of change using graphs in meaningful context.

Geometry
 Analyze characteristics and properties of two geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.
 Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems.
 Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
 Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.
 Identify polygons based on their properties, including types of interior angles, perpendicular or parallel sides, and congruence of sides, e.g., squares, rectangles, rhombuses, parallelograms, trapezoids, and isosceles, equilateral, and right triangles.
 Identify threedimensional shapes (e.g., cubes, prisms, spheres, cones, and pyramids) based on their properties, such as edges and faces.
 Identify relationships among points, lines, and planes, e.g., intersecting, parallel, perpendicular.
 Graph points and identify coordinates of points on the Cartesian coordinate plane (all four quadrants).
 Predict, describe, and perform transformations on twodimensional shapes, e.g., translations, rotations, and reflections.
 Identify and describe transformations, reflections, translations, slides, flips, and rotations.
 Tessellate shapes across a plane.
 Identify types of symmetry, including line and rotational.
 Identify point and line symmetry in given polygons.
 Identify and describe transformations, reflections, translations, slides, flips, and rotations.
 Determine if two shapes are congruent by measuring sides or a combination of sides and angles, as necessary; or by motions of series of motions, e.g., translations, rotations, and reflections.
 Identify, describe and draw congruent and similar figures.

Measurement
 Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
 Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.
 Apply the concepts of perimeter and area to the solution of problems. Apply formulas where appropriate.
 Develop and apply formulas for area and perimeter for standard figures and objects, and for combined figures.
 Identify, measure, describe, classify, and construct various angles, triangles and quadrilaterals.
 Identify, name, and construct plane and simple solid figures.
 Solve problems involving proportional relationships and units of measurements.
 Apply the comparison of similar figures and the ratio of their corresponding lengths and areas to solve problems.
 Find areas of triangles, parallelograms. Recognize that shapes with the same number of sides but with different appearances can have the same area. Develop strategies to find area of complex shapes.
 Develop and apply formulas for area, perimeter, and volume for standard figures and objects, and for combined figures.
 Identify, measure and describe circles and the relationships of the radius, diameter, circumference and area and use the concepts to solve problems.
 Measure the circumference and diameter of at least five different circular objects and explain how the ratios approach pi.
 Find surface areas of rectangular prisms.
 Describe the meaning of and calculate the area of rectangles and triangles and the perimeter of simple polygons.
 Find the sum of the angles in simple polygons (up to eight sides) with and without measuring angles.
 Explore identify, describe spatial relationships and properties of 2D shapes using manipulatives.

Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability
 Formulate questions that can be answered with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them.
 Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.
 Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.
 Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.
 Describe and compare data sets using the concepts of median, mean, mode, maximum and minimum and range.
 Construct and interpret stemandleaf plots, line plots, and circle graphs.
 Construct and interpret line plots, stem and leaf plots, and frequency distributions.
 Use tree diagrams and other models to represent possible or actual outcomes of trials. Analyze the outcomes.
 Utilize appropriate technology to simulate, display, graph and analyze data with multiple representations such as tables, charts, and graphs.
 Predict the probability of outcomes of simple experiments and test the predictions. Use appropriate ratios between 0 and 1 to represent the probability of the outcome and associate the probability with the likelihood of the event.
 Read and interpret statistical data to make predictions, inferences, and decisions.
 Use the "bestline through data" concept to make predictions and to solve problems.
 Cite at least five world situations and show how probability is used in each.

Discussion, Presentation, Composition
 Use agreed upon rules to participate in discussions in large and small groups.
 Express ideas in an organized way.
 Explain their mathematical thinking in writing.
 Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their work.

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY/ENGINEERING
Topic: Human Body Systems
 Recognize that many of the basic functions of organisms (e.g., extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste) are carried out within cells. The way in which cells function is similar in all living things.
 Describe the hierarchical organization of multi cellular organisms from cell to tissue to organs to systems to organisms.
 Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each other.

Topic: Water & Weather
 Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth's system.
 Explain the relationship among the energy provided by the sun, the global patterns of atmospheric movement, and the temperature differences among water, land, and atmosphere.

Topic: Heat Energy
 Recognize that heat is a form of energy and that temperature change results from adding or taking away heat from a system.
 Give examples of how heat moves in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach equilibrium.

Topic: Technology/Engineering
 Identify appropriate materials, tools, and machines to solve problems.
 Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process.
 Demonstrate methods of representing solutions to a design problem.

Topic: Scientific Inquiry
 Use simple tools such as rulers, magnifiers, balances, thermometers, graduated cylinders, etc. to observe and measure things carefully.
 Pose questions, design, and conduct simple science experiments using appropriate equipment and measuring tools. Some questions may be posed by the student and some will be posed by the teacher.
 Predict, observe, classify, and clearly record results in journals or logs.
 Communicate scientific procedures and explanations using presentations, charts, simple graphs, discussions, and writing.
 Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
 Compare results and explanations with scientific knowledge.

Discussion & Presentation
 Participate in formal and informal discussions in large and small groups, using agreed upon rules to conduct and facilitate them.
 Organize and present their thoughts in a logical manner.
 Support their ideas with evidence or details; expect and request the same of others.
 Actively listen, respond to, and build on ideas generated during discussions.
 Use the information to inform or change their perspectives.
 Ask for clarification when others' responses are unclear.
 Summarize and evaluate what they have learned from the discussion.
 Evaluate the productivity of discussions using established criteria; make suggestions to improve the discussions.
 Give oral presentations, using established criteria to prepare, assess, and improve their presentations.

Composition
 Write frequently in response to readings, other presentations, and observations (e.g., summaries, questions, reactions, connections, predictions, reports).
 Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their thoughts, observations, writings, illustrations, and other work.
 Write occasional, brief research reports to extend their knowledge beyond classroom presentations; include a clear focus and supporting details.
 Write, share, assess, and revise frequent responses to MCASlike, open response (key) questions posed by the teacher.

