Parents: Boston Public Schools Grade 8

Grade 8 Learning Standards

This information is from the Boston Public Schools Citywide Learning Standards.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS

Discussion and Oral Presentation
Students will be able to:

  • Use agreed upon rules for informal and formal discussions in large and small groups such as Book Club, Literature Circles, and Buddy Reading.
  • Facilitate discussion groups independent from the teacher; identify and practice techniques to improve group productivity such as discussion guidelines, setting time limits for speakers and deadlines for decision-making.
  • Organize and present ideas in a logical order.
  • Ask for clarification when others' responses are unclear.
  • Actively listen, respond to, and build on ideas generated during group discussions.
  • Use information to inform or change their perspectives.
  • Support their responses with evidence or details; expect and request the same of others.
  • Summarize and evaluate what they have learned from the discussion.
  • Evaluate the productivity of group discussion using group created criteria and make suggestions to address the needs of the group.
  • Give oral presentations for a variety of purposes, using teacher-made criteria that demonstrate consideration of audience, purpose and content.
  • Create an appropriate guide to prepare, improve, and assess presentations.
  • Use assessment criteria to prepare their presentations.
  • Listen critically and express opinions in oral presentations.
  • Distinguish between fact and opinion.
  • Compare and contrast points of view.
  • Gather relevant information for a research project or composition through interviews.
  • Conduct interviews for research projects and writing.
Language
  • Identify sentences along the continuum from simple to compound-complex.
  • Identify whether a clause functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.
  • Identify whether a verbal is a participle, gerund, or infinitive.
  • Analyze the structure of a sentence.
  • Identify correct mechanics, usage, and sentence structure.
  • Identify the differences between formal and informal English.
  • Describe the origins and meanings of common words or phrases used frequently in written English.
  • Identify content-specific vocabulary and terms.
  • Recognize common irregularly spelled words by sight.
  • Use letter-sound knowledge to decode written English.
  • Read grade-appropriate imaginative/literary and informational/expository text fluently, accurately, and with understanding.
  • Identify and analyze the different purposes for language: expressive, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective.
Reading and Literature
  • Demonstrate fluency and understanding when reading different grade-level appropriate text.
  • Select books for independent reading.
  • Use before, during, and after reading strategies to enhance their comprehension of different texts.
  • Use background knowledge to make inferences and predictions and to make personal connections with what is being read.
  • Setting a purpose for reading.
  • Ask questions to clarify information.
  • Summarize information to check understanding.
  • Visualize information in text to support comprehension.
  • Identify the topic and main idea of different texts.
  • Understand genres and organizational structure and apply that knowledge to their reading of different texts.
  • Use knowledge of text features and organizational structure to make meaning of what is read.
  • Develop and analyze a critical theory about the text they are reading.
  • Demonstrate and understanding of intratextuality and intertextuality when reading different texts.
  • Understand when comprehension breaks down; know and using self-correcting strategies to make meaning of what is being read.
  • Relate a literary work to primary source documents of its literary period or historical setting.
  • Relate a literary work to artifacts, artistic creations, or historical sites of the period of its setting.
  • Locate and analyze elements of plot and characterization; use an understanding of the elements to determine how qualities of the central characters influence the resolution of the conflict.
  • Compare and contrast the presentation of a theme or topic across genres to explain how the selection of genre shapes the message.
  • Apply knowledge of the concept that the theme or meaning of a selection represents a view or comment on life, and provide support from the text for the identified themes.
  • Locate and analyze such elements in fiction as point of view, foreshadowing, and irony.
  • Analyze the logic and use of evidence in an author's argument.
  • Analyze and explain the structure and elements of nonfiction works.
  • Respond to and analyze the effects of sound, form, figurative language, and graphics in order to uncover meaning in poetry.
  • Identify and analyze imagery and figurative language.
  • Identify and analyze how an author's use of words creates tone and mood.
  • Identify and analyze elements of setting, plot, and characterization in the plays that are read, viewed, written, and/or performed.
  • Identify and analyze the similarities and differences in the presentation of setting, character, and plot in texts, plays, and films.
Composition
  • Collect ideas for writing from different texts and sources (dialogue, artifacts, memories, images, etc.).
  • Maintain a process for recording, collecting, referring to, and sharing their ideas for writing, as well as more formal writing products, including drafts.
  • Demonstrate their ability to write for a variety of purposes and audiences.
  • Identify and use different genres and organizational structures; monitor and evaluate their selection of genres and organizational structures for drafts.
  • Monitor and evaluate their selection of appropriate strategies for developing ideas into drafts.
  • Monitor and evaluate their selection of appropriate strategies for revising the organization and ideas in drafts.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the various features of written English.
  • Demonstrate the use of effective language for talking about pieces of writing (e.g. craft, focus, structure, genre, voice, audience).
  • Write and justify a personal interpretation of literary, informational, or expository reading that includes topic statement, supporting details from the literature, and a conclusion.
  • Write multi-paragraph compositions that have clear topic development, logical organization, effective use of detail, and variety in sentence structure.
  • Revise writing to improve organization and diction after checking the logic underlying the order of ideas, the precision of vocabulary used, and the economy of writing.
  • Improve word choice by using a variety of references.
  • Use knowledge of types of sentences (simple, compound, complex), correct mechanics (comma after introductory structures), correct usage (pronoun reference), sentence structure (complete sentences, properly placed modifiers), and standard English spelling when writing and editing.
  • Use knowledge of types of sentences (simple, compound, complex), correct mechanics (comma after introductory structures), correct usage (pronoun reference), sentence structure (complete sentences, properly placed modifiers), and standard English spelling when writing and editing.
  • Integrate the use of organizing techniques that break up strict chronological order in a story (starting in the middle of the action, then filling in background information using flashbacks).
  • Organize information into a coherent essay or report with a thesis statement in the introduction, transition sentences to link paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Integrate the use of organizing techniques that break up strict chronological order in a story (starting in the middle of the action, then filling in background information using flashbacks).
  • Organize information into a coherent essay or report with a thesis statement in the introduction, transition sentences to link paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Differentiate between primary and secondary source materials.
  • Differentiate between paraphrasing and using direct quotes in a report.
  • Document information and quotations and use consistent format for footnotes or endnotes.
  • Use standard bibliographic format to document sources.
  • Identify and use established criteria from a scoring rubric to evaluate compositions, recitations, or performances before presenting them to an audience.
  • Collaboratively develop and use scoring guides or rubrics to improve organization and presentation of written and oral projects.
Media
  • Analyze the techniques used in different media to effect on the reader's or viewer's emotions and perspectives.
  • Analyze media presentations and written reports on the same subject and compare the differences in effects of each medium.
  • Create and use criteria to assess the effectiveness of media presentations.
HISTORY & SOCIAL STUDIES

United States History II: 1815 to C. 1877

Teaching for Understanding

  • Significant time needs to be spent during the year developing students' understanding of key concepts or "big ideas" that are important to all eras and regions of the world. Examples of these big ideas are listed below.
  • At the beginning of the year, teachers should engage students in activities to find out what they already know about some or all of the big ideas. At the close of each topic, teachers should return to the big ideas and ask, "What's something new you have learned about the big ideas? What people, places, events, documents, artifacts, and other details have contributed to your new understandings? How are your new understandings different or similar to your previous opinions and beliefs?"
  • Teachers may also pose more specific key questions that stimulate additional thought, discussion and writing by students. Over the course of the year, students' opinions and beliefs will be sharpened into generalizations and principles supported by the evidence they have collected along the way.
Key Concepts/Big Ideas: Examples
  • Economic, Political, Social Justice
  • Economic, Political, Social Systems
  • Power
  • Freedom
  • Race/Gender/Ethnicity/Class
  • Discrimination
  • "Unalienable Rights"
  • War/Peace/Violence
  • Religion
  • Art, Music, & Culture
  • Childhood, Adolescence, and Family Life
  • Money, Wealth, Poverty
  • Work: Labor & Management
  • Business & Economics
  • Leaders & Leadership
  • Government & Politics
  • "My country, right or wrong"
  • Geography/Natural Resources/Nature
  • "E pluribus unum"
  • "Of the people, by the people, for the people"
  • Individual, Civic, and Social Responsibility
  • Imperialism/Colonialism
General Standards
  • Construct and interpret historical timelines; associate period with chronological order.
  • Put events into temporal order.
  • Observe and identify details in cartoons, photographs, charts and graphs.
  • Use maps and globes to locate places and events: demonstrate an understanding of longitude and latitude; North and South Pole, Equator, Prime Meridian, Hemispheres; compass rose, scale, legend; political, topographical, specialized, modern and historical maps and their differences
  • Demonstrate an understanding of cause and effect, and the relations between events.
  • Demonstrate an understanding that actions can have intended and unintended consequences.
  • Be familiar with the key people, places, events, documents, movements, and other details identified under each topic.
  • Make connections between key people and events, people and events from their own lives, the lives of family members, and people and events in the world around them.
  • Compare and contrast ideas, rituals, customs, and concerns expressed or conducted by individuals of the past that may be similar or different from their own.
  • Increase and demonstrate their understanding of the big ideas associated with each topic, using key people, places, events, document, et al. to illustrate and support their own ideas.
  • Conduct historical inquiry projects: employ a variety of sources to gather information and evidence, and reach conclusions; identify primary and secondary sources; differentiate among the kinds of texts they read; understand that narrative accounts vary in emphasis and accuracy depending upon to the author's point of view and understanding of cause or significance.
Discussion and Presentation
  • Use agreed upon rules to participate in and facilitate large and small group discussions
  • Organize and present their thoughts in a logical manner
  • Support their ideas with evidence or details; expect and request the same of others
  • Actively listen, respond to, and build on ideas generated during discussions
  • Use the information to inform or change their perspectives
  • Ask for clarification when others' responses are unclear
  • Summarize and evaluate what they have learned from the discussion
  • Evaluate the productivity of discussions using established criteria; make suggestions to improve the discussions
  • Give oral presentations, using established criteria to prepare, assess, and improve their presentations
Composition
  • Write frequently in response to readings, lectures, and other presentations (e.g., summaries, questions, reactions, interpretations, connections, perspectives, predictions, and other responses to people and events)
  • Maintain a system (e.g., history notebooks) for collecting, referring to, and sharing their notes, thoughts, and writings, including formal writing products
  • Write occasional, brief research reports to extend their knowledge beyond classroom presentations; include a clear focus and supporting details
  • Write, share, assess, and revise frequent responses to MCAS-like, open response (key) questions posed by the teacher
Era I: The American Revolution: Creating a New Nation (1750 to 1815)

Topic 1: The Anglo-American Political Heritage: Greco-Roman History, Magna Carta, the Evolution of Parliament, the Mayflower Compact, the English Revolution, Colonial Governments, and Ideas of the Enlightenment Era
Students will be familiar with:

  • The principles of democracy in documents such as the Magna Carta and the Mayflower Compact and as they appear in the ideas of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu.
Topic 2: Leading Founders, Founding Documents and Debates: Adams, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, State Constitutions, Articles of Confederation, Northwest Ordinance, the Constitution, Federalists, Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights
  • The term confederation; how power was to be shared by the states and the central government under the Articles of Confederation.
  • The strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
  • The economic and political conditions within the United States in the 1780s.
  • The role that each of the following played at the Constitutional Convention: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and Benjamin Franklin.
  • The date, place, and purpose of the Constitutional Convention.
  • The basic rights given to citizens by the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; the connection between the Massachusetts Constitution and the US Constitution. (optional)
Topic 3: The Constitution: The Federal System at Its Origins; Union; Separation of Powers; the Three-Fifths Compromise
  • The basic principles of government found within the Constitution, to include: federalism, separation of powers and checks and balances.
  • How controversial issues such as slavery, state representation and trade regulation were resolved by the delegates through compromise.
  • How the Constitution can be amended.
  • The process used to ratify the Constitution.
  • The significance of the Bill of Rights; rights and freedoms protected by the first ten Amendments.
Topic 4: National State and Local Government
  • Our system of government at the federal, state, and local levels.
  • Legislative Branch, Executive Branch, Judicial Branch, Congress, Senate, House of Representatives, Expressed Powers, Implied Powers, President, Supreme Court.
  • The role of members of Congress, the President and the Supreme Court.
  • The qualifications and terms of office for a U.S. Senator, Representative, and President.
  • How a U..S Senator, Representative and President is elected to office.
  • The "expressed powers" of Congress.
  • The powers given to the President of the United States.
  • The system of checks and balances and how it limits power.
  • Governor, Mayor, City Council, state legislature.
  • How state government in Massachusetts is organized.
  • The powers, duties and terms of office of major officials of the Massachusetts state government (governor, legislators).
  • The powers, duties and terms of office for major City of Boston officials (mayor, city councilors).
  • The responsibilities of citizenship at the federal, state and local levels in terms of involvement in the political process and awareness of state, local and national issues.
Topic 5: The Early Republic: Washington as Founding Statesman; the Birth of Party Politics
  • Domestic and foreign problems facing the United States beginning in 1789; related actions taken by George Washington and their importance.
  • The views of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton on issues such as national power and the economy; how these differences led to the development of political parties.
  • Actions taken by Alexander Hamilton to strengthen and stabilize U.S. finances.
  • The significance of the election of 1796.
Topic 6: Expansion and Conflict: the Louisiana Purchase; War of 1812
  • The reasons for the sale of Louisiana Territory; Constitutional issues relating to U.S. acquisition of new land.
  • The physical characteristics, geography, and resources of the Louisiana Territory; its impact on the economy of America.
  • The purpose of the Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike expeditions; the value of the geographic and scientific knowledge acquired. (optional)
  • Native American resistance to the growth of America; the reasons and results for Native Americans.
  • The causes, key figures/events and results of the War of 1812.
Era II: Expansion, Reform, and Economic Growth (1800-1861)

Topic 7: Evolution of the Supreme Court; John Marshall; Marbury v. Madison

  • How John Marshall attempted to strengthen the power of the federal government: Marbury v. Madison (1803), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819); states' reactions.
Topic 8: Industrialization In New England; Invention and Enterprise

Topic 9: The Northern Economic System: Capital, Industry, Labor, Trade

Topic 10: The Southern Economic System: Land, Agriculture, Slavery, Trade

  • Industrial Revolution, mills, factory system, mill girl.
  • How the increase of roads, canals and railroads supported the growth of the Industrial Revolution, increased communications and strengthened national unity.
  • "Factory system"; mills in cities like Pawtucket, Lowell or Waltham; the organizational structure of the system.
  • Working conditions in mills and small factories throughout New England.
  • The economic system of the South vs. the Northern Industrial System; the connection between the Northern industrial system and the Southern plantation system.
Topic 11: Jacksonian Democracy and Pre-Civil War Reformers: Popular Politics, Abolitionism, Women's Rights, and Schooling
  • Jacksonian Democracy, abolitionism, reform, suffrage.
  • The goals of various reformers and efforts made to bring about social and political reform. (optional)
  • The goals and roles of the abolitionists (select two of the five for study): Frederick Douglass, William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Sarah, Angelina Grimke.
Topic 12: The Emergence Of Distinctly American Religion, Art, And Literature (Optional)
  • Developments in American art and literature (e.g., Emerson, Thoreau, Poe, Hawthorne, Melville, Irving, Thomas Cole, John James Audubon).
  • The influence of immigrants and African-Americans on Catholicism and Protestantism during the period of the 1840s and 50s.
Topic 12: New Immigrants; Migration Patterns; Nativist Hostility:
  • The impact of poverty, famine, and revolutions in Europe on immigration to America and in the American society and labor force in the mid-1800s.
  • Nativism; nativist hostility; the significance of the Know-Nothing Party.
Topic 13: Westward Migration; Indian Removals; War Against Mexico
  • The concept of Manifest Destiny.
  • The causes and results of the Mexican-American War; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  • American land acquisition between the years 1803-1853. (optional)
  • The impact of expansion and Federal and state Indian policies on Native Americans; Andrew Jackson's view of Native Americans, Indian Removal Acts, "Trail of Tears."
  • Strategies forged by Native Americans to combat American encroachment.
Era III: The Civil War and Reconstruction (1850 to 1877)

Topic 14: Slave Life; Families, Religion, and Resistance in The American South
(Teachers may select one of the following three standards for in-depth study)

  • The varied experiences of African Americans during slavery including efforts by enslaved people to preserve family, honor, and heritage.
  • The values of the enslaved in terms of family, extended family, marriage, and education and the struggle of the enslaved to maintain these values.
  • The methods of resistance to slavery, passive and/or violent, North and South, including efforts of free and escaped slaves to keep the underground railroad operational.
Topic 15: A Nation Divided; the Failed Attempts at Compromise Over Slavery
  • The significance of and national issues connected with each of the following: the Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850, Fugitive Slave Act, Northern "liberty laws."
  • How, after 1850, Uncle Tom's Cabin, the Dred Scott Decision, and the Fugitive Slave Law influenced public opinion against slavery.
Topic 16: Abraham Lincoln: Beliefs, Election; Secession and War
  • The causes of the Civil War from the perspective of the North and the South.
  • Union and Confederate resources (population, industry, transportation, finances, military forces; the impact that these resources had on the outcome of the war.
  • Lincoln's position on slavery; the importance of these views to the nation and to free and enslaved blacks. (optional)
  • The importance of the attack on and surrender of Fort Sumter.
Topic 17: Scenes of War, Battlefield, Farm, Factory, Home, Hospital (Optional)
  • The realities of war from the perspective of black and white soldiers, family members, leaders, journalists and prisoners of war.
  • Medical care provided soldiers in the field and at home.
Topic 18: Massachusetts Soldiers; Fort Wagner, the Wilderness
  • The reasons for black enlistment into the Union Army; Northern and southern reluctance in allowing blacks to join armed services; overall treatment of black vs. white soldiers.
  • The role played by Massachusetts soldiers, in particular the 54th and 55th Regiments.
  • The 57th and other Massachusetts Regiments and their contributions to the war effort.
Topic 19: Leaders, Deciding Factors, Turning Points, and Human Toll of the Civil War
  • Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Abraham Lincoln, William T. Sherman, Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865.
  • The importance of the Battle of Vicksburg (1863) and Gettysburg (1863).
  • The purpose and results of "Sherman's March to the Sea."
  • The final stages of the war for the South, including the surrender of Lee at Appomattox Court House; the damages of war in terms of the economy, destruction to land/property, loss of life.
Topic 20: Emancipation Proclamation; the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
  • The contents and actual impact of the Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863).
  • The provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments and the significance of each.
Topic 21: Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Second Inaugural and Assassination
  • The meaning of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
  • The significance of the Lincoln assassination at Ford's Theatre on April 14, 1865.
Topic 22: Reconstruction: Aims, Obstacles, and Phases
  • The strengths and weaknesses of Reconstruction plans presented by Lincoln, Johnson, and the Radical Republicans.
  • The achievements and failures of the Freedman's Bureau.
  • The achievements of Blacks elected to the US Congress and to state offices during Reconstruction.
  • The achievements and failures of the Radical Republicans.
  • How the election of 1876 would bring Reconstruction to an end.
Era IV: The Advent of Modern America (1865 to C. 1890)

Topic 23: Changes and Constraints for African-Americans: Plessy v. Ferguson
(Teachers may select two of the following five standards for in-depth study.)

  • Racial segregation, "Jim Crow" laws, equal opportunity, Racial discrimination, Ku Klux Klan, and "separate but equal."
  • Methods used by Southern whites to restore themselves to power.
  • The significance of the 14th and 15th Amendments and ways in which they were ignored or violated.
  • The Plessy Case and the significance of the court ruling.
  • The perseverance of blacks in the face of discrimination including the role of independent black churches and educational institutions to provide opportunities for self-improvement.
MATH

Number Sense and Operations

  • Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
  • Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.
  • Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
  • Compare, order, estimate, and translate among integer, fractions and mixed numbers (i.e., rational numbers), decimals and percents.
  • Continue to investigate and describe the relationship among fractions, decimals, and percents.
  • Use estimation to solve problems involving money, length, area, perimeter and volume
  • Define, compare, order, and apply frequently used irrational numbers, such as .
  • Master computations with fractions and real numbers.
  • Master operations involving fractions, decimals, integers, rational and irrational numbers.
  • Master the types of numbers (whole and real numbers, integers, rational, and irrational numbers).
  • Use ratios and proportions in the solution of problems, in particular, problems involving unit rates, scale factors, and rate of change.
  • Understand and apply ratio and proportion to probability and geometry to solve numerical problems.
  • Represent numbers in scientific notation, and use them in calculations and problem situations.
  • Relate place value to computation, metric system, exponential form and scientific notation.
  • Apply number theory concepts, including prime factorization and relatively prime numbers, to the solution of problems.
  • Master the use of primes and properties of numbers such as, GCF and LCM to compute and/or approximate powers and roots.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of absolute value, e.g., I -3I =I3I = 3.
  • Apply the rules of powers and roots to the solution of problems. Extend the Order of Operations to include positive integer exponents and square roots.
  • Master the laws of exponents (integer and rational).
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the properties of arithmetic operations on rational numbers.
  • Use the associative, commutative, and distributive properties; properties of the identity and inverse elements (e.g., -7+7 = 0; x 4/3 = 1); and the notion of closure of a subset of the rational numbers under an operation (e.g., the set of odd integers is closed under multiplication but not under addition).
  • Master equivalent representation of procedures (i.e ,.demonstrate and describe the relationship of addition for whole numbers, fractions, decimals).
  • Use the inverse relationships of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, and squaring and finding square roots to simplify computations and solve problems (e.g., multiplying by or 0.5 is the same as dividing by 2).
  • Estimate and compute with fractions (including simplification of fractions), integers, decimals, and percents (including those greater than 100 and less than 1).
  • Use concrete and abstract models to understand and describe the mathematical processes underlying the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division(and their relationship with one another) on fractions, decimals, and integers.
  • Create and solve problems that require the use of numbers other than whole numbers in the context of geometry, probability and statistics.
  • Determine when an estimate rather than an exact answer is appropriate and apply in problem situations.
  • Use estimation techniques and inverse operations to confirm results.
  • Select and use appropriate operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and positive integer exponents - to solve problems with rational numbers (including negatives).
Patterns, Relations and Algebra
  • Understand patterns, relations and functions.
  • Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
  • Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
  • Analyze change in various contexts.
  • Extend, represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and when possible, symbolic expressions. Include arithmetic and geometric progressions, e.g., compounding.
  • Explore number patterns: generate rules for number sequences.
  • Evaluate simple algebraic expressions for given variable values, e.g., 3a2- b for a=3 and b=7.
  • Continue to develop and apply key concepts such as variable, equivalence, order and inverse in the context of number, algebra, and geometry.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the identity (-x)(-y)=xy. Use this identity to simplify algebraic expressions, e.g., (-2)(-x+2 )= 2x - 4.
  • Create and use symbolic expressions and relate them to verbal, tabular, and graphic representations.
  • Use graphing calculator to express the data in tabular, symbolic and graphic form.
  • Continue to describe and represent patterns using models, tables, graphs, simple rules, and manipulatives.
  • Continue to use the graphing calculator to generate tables and graphs and identify algebraic relationships.
  • Continue to use tables and graphs to identify and describe properties and relationships.
  • Construct, interpret, and evaluate formulas and expressions drawn from real-life and other academic domains.
  • Identify the slope of a line as a measure of its steepness and as a constant rate of change from its table of values, equation, or graph. Apply the concept of slope to the solution of problems.
  • Identify the roles of variables within an equation, e.g., y=mx+b, expressing y as a function of x with parameters m and b.
  • Set up and solve linear equations and inequalities with one or two variables, using algebraic methods, models, and/or graphs.
  • Set up and solve everyday problems involving linear equations and inequalities with one or two variables, using algebraic methods, models, and/or graphs.
  • Continue to use calculators, computers, concrete manipulatives(i.e. Algebra Lab Gear) and real life situations to explore and describe linear relationships and to solve linear equations.
  • Master the attributes of linear equations and inequalities, absolute value and quadratic equations.
  • Represent real life situations to solve linear and square functions.
  • Develop and apply the concept of function through the linear and quadratic levels.
  • Explain and analyze—both quantitatively and qualitatively, using pictures, graphs, charts, or equations how a change in one variable results in a change in another variable in functional relationships, e.g., C= d, A= r2 (As a function of r), Arectangle =lw (Arectangle as a function of l and w).
  • Use linear equations to model and analyze problems involving proportional relationships. Use technology as appropriate.
  • Use tables and graphs to represent and compare linear growth patterns. In particular, compare rates of change and x- and y-intercepts of different linear patterns.
Geometry
  • Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.
  • Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems.
  • Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
  • Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.
  • Classify figures in terms of congruence and similarity, and apply these relationships to the solution of problems.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the relationships of angles formed by intersecting lines, including parallel lines cut by a transversal.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the Pythagorean theorem. Apply the theorem to the solution of problems.
  • Use the Pythagorean theorem to identify the distance between two points on a coordinate plane.
  • Master the use of sine, cosine, tangent ratios to solve everyday problems involving right triangles.
  • Use the properties of special right triangles to solve everyday problems.
  • Use a straightedge, compass, or other tools to formulate and test conjectures, and to draw geometric figures.
  • Predict the results of transformations on unmarked or coordinate planes and draw the transformed figure, e.g., predict how tessellations transform under translations, reflections, and rotations.
  • Use in combination the transformation of translation, reflection, rotations and dilation.
  • Define similarity and congruence in terms of transformation.
Measurement
  • Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
  • Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.
  • Select, convert (within the same system of measurement), and use appropriate units of measurement or scale.
  • Master the reading and interpretation of scales and the degree of accuracy that is appropriate.
  • Given the formulas, convert from one system of measurement to another. Use technology as appropriate.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts and apply formulas and procedures for determining measures, including those of area and perimeter/circumference of parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles. Given the formulas, determine the surface area and volume of rectangular prisms, cylinders, and spheres. Use technology as appropriate.
  • Use models, graphs, and formulas to solve simple problems involving rates (e.g., velocity and density).
Data Analysis, Statistics and Probability
  • Formulate questions that can be answered with data and collect, organize and display relevant data to answer them.
  • Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.
  • Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.
  • Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.
  • Describe the characteristics and limitations of a data sample. Identify different ways of selecting a sample, e.g., convenience sampling, responses to a survey, random sampling.
  • Select, create, interpret, and utilize various tabular and graphical representations of data, e.g., circle graphs, Venn diagrams, scatterplots, stem-and-leaf plots, box-and-whisker plots, histograms, tables, and charts.
  • Design and use data collection sheets; access information from reference sources; where appropriate, use graphing calculators to create frequency tables.
  • Design a questionnaire or an experiment to capture needed to follow lines of inquiry and to test hypothesis.
  • Find, describe, and interpret appropriate measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and spread (range) that represent a set of data. Use these notions to compare different sets of data.
  • Read and interpret statistical data to make predictions, inferences, and decisions.
  • Investigate the benefits of simple circuits and networks.
  • Create simple algorithms to solve problems.
  • Use counting techniques, tree diagrams, permutations, and combination techniques.
  • Use logic and inductive reasoning to make predictions related to a series of statements.
Discussion, Presentation, Composition
  • Use agreed upon rules to participate in discussions in large and small groups.
  • Express ideas in an organized way.
  • Explain their mathematical thinking in writing.
  • Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their work.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Topic: Astronomy
Students will be able to:

  • Recognize that gravity is a force that pulls all things on and near the Earth toward the center of the earth. Gravity plays a major role in the formation of the planets, stars, and solar system and in determining their motions.
  • Describe lunar and solar eclipse the observed moon phases, and tides. Relate them to the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.
  • Compare and contrast properties and conditions in the solar system (i.e. sun, planets, and moons) to those on Earth (i.e. Gravitational force, distance from the sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions).
  • Compare and contrast properties and conditions in the solar system (i.e. sun, planets, and moons) to those on Earth (i.e. Gravitational force, distance from the sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions).
Topic: Chemistry and the Atom
  • Differentiate between weight and mass, recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object.
  • Differentiate between volume and mass. Define density .
  • Recognize that the measurement of volume and mass requires understanding of the sensitivity of measurement tools (e.g. rulers, graduated cylinders, balances) and knowledge and appropriate use of significant digits.
  • Explain and give examples of how mass is conserved in a closed system.
  • Recognize that there are more than 100 elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter.
  • Differentiate between an atom (the smallest unit of an element that maintains the characteristics of that element) and a molecule (the smallest unit of a compound that maintains the characteristics of that compound)
  • Give basic examples of elements and compounds.
  • Differentiate between mixtures and pure substance.
  • Recognize that a substance (element or compound) has a melting point and a boiling point, both of which are independent of the amount of the sample.
  • Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes.
  • Recognize that heat is a form of energy and that temperature changes result from adding or taking away heat from a system.
  • Explain the effect of heat on a particle through a description of what happens to particles during a change in phase.
Topic: Ecosystem
  • Recognize that every organism requires a set of instructios that specifies its traits. These instructions are stored in the organism's chromosomes. Heredity is the passage of thse instruction from one generation to another.
  • Recognize that heridity information is.
  • Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms.
  • Recognize that evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provides the basis of the theory of evolution.
  • Give examples of ways in which organisms interact and have different functions within an ecosystem that enable the ecosystem to survive.
  • Explain the roles and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.
  • Explain how dead plants and animals are broken down by other living organisms and how this process contributes to the system as a whole.
  • Recognize that producers (plants that contain chlorophyll) use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later used, or used by other organism.
Topic: Technology/Engineering
  • Identify appropriate materials, tools, and machines to solve problems.
  • Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process.
  • Demonstrate methods of representing solutions to a design problem.
Topic: Scientific Inquiry
  • Use simple tools such as rulers, magnifiers, balances, thermometers, graduated cylinders, etc to observe and measure things carefully.
  • Design and conduct simple science experiments using appropriate equipment and measuring tools. Some questions may be posed by the student and some will be posed by the teacher.
  • Predict, observe, classify and record results clearly in journals or logs.
  • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations using presentations, charts, simple graphs, discussions and writing.
  • Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence.
  • Compare results and explanations with scientific knowledge.
Discussion & Presentation
  • Participate in formal and informal discussions in large and small groups, using agreed upon rules to conduct and facilitate them
  • Organize and present their thoughts in a logical manner
  • Support their ideas with evidence or details; expect and request the same of others
  • Actively listen, respond to, and build on ideas generated during discussions
  • Use the information to inform or change their perspectives
  • Ask for clarification when others' responses are unclear
  • Summarize and evaluate what they have learned from the discussion
  • Evaluate the productivity of discussions using established criteria; make suggestions to improve the discussions
  • Give oral presentations, using established criteria to prepare, assess, and improve their presentations
Composition
  • Write frequently in response to readings, other presentations, and observations (e.g., summaries, questions, reactions, connections, predictions, reports).
  • Maintain a system for collecting, referring to, and sharing their thoughts, observations, writings, illustrations, and other work.
  • Write occasional, brief research reports to extend their knowledge beyond classroom presentations; include a clear focus and supporting details
  • Write, share, assess, and revise frequent responses to MCAS-like, open response (key) questions posed by the teacher